Gulyakov Alexander Dmitrievich, Candidate of juridical sciences, associate professor, rector of Penza State University (40 Krasnaya street, Penza, Russia), Comp_federalism@yandex.ru
Salomatin Aleksey Yur'evich, Doctor of juridical sciences, doctor of historical sciences, professor, head of sub-department of state and saw theory and political science, Penza State University (40 Krasnaya street, Penza, Russia); corresponding member of the International Academy of Comparative Law, firstname.lastname@example.org
Background. In the Theory of State and Law the theory of State lags behind the theory of law. So there is a necessity to intensify studies of the state. To make it better it’s natural to develop Comparative State Studying and apply it to the problems of federalism in particular. There are more than 100 definitions of federalism – from very narrow to very broad ones. It seems to us that the definition made by M. X. Farukshin is more suitable. But we would like to see federalism as a process with some elements and links between them.
Materials and methods. The structural analysis is used in the article when we present federalism as a process. In addition, the scheme “Federative state establishment” depicts different stages of this process fulfilling different tasks. The final scheme gives a complex composition of a model of federalism reflecting its prerequisites (or factors of influence on its emergence), as well as stages, key features and directions of the development.
Results. Due to the innovative schemes, worked out by the authors, they put forward their concept that federalism is a process which has some common features and peculiarities in different countries. Various models of federalism can be classified according to geopolitical and historical backgrounds. The authors claim that there have been Pioneering, Latin American, Imperial and Republican Post-Imperial, Folk (or Community), Post-Colonial, Soviet and Russian models of federalism.
Conclusions. There is a multitude of stages of federalism. The Pre-federative stage witnessed only weak associations, like ancient unions of towns, the Holy German Empire, the United Provinces of Netherlands. The first federative states (USA, Latin American countries) appeared only as a result of modernization. Europe lags behind in this process after the New World. Territorial and political crises after the First World War furthered the formation of Austria and USSR. Post-Modernization has inspired new challenges for Unitarian states and the process of federalization continues across the world.
Comparative State Studying, federalism, frocess of establishment of federative states, models of federalism, stages in the development of federalism, history of federalism, comparative federalism
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